In low dimensional topology we speak of tangles, while quantum physics speaks of entanglement. Similar words, but is there a deeper connection? Kauffman conjectured that the answer is yes (and I think he’s right, although maybe for other reasons). Glancing through arXiv this morning, I came across the following recent preprint:
Alagic, G., Jarret M., and Jordan S.P. Yang-Baxter operators need quantum entanglement to distinguish knots
Their result is what it says in the title. Namely, we comb the knot into a braid, and assign R-matrices to crossings. An R-matrix underlies a linear operator . The authors prove that if the this operator maps product states to product states, then it gives rise (via a certain “taking the normalized trace of the operator the braid gives” procedure) to a trivial quantum knot invariant. Thus, entanglement is an essential part of being a nontrivial quantum invariant. Very cool!
There’s a suggestive picture in my head. Entanglement is all about nonlocality, where two non-interacting objects (an overstrand and an understrand?) cannot be described as separate systems (crossing?), but are inseparably intertwined in that they share some sort of coordination. It’s the entanglement which allows the overstrand to “communicate” to the understrand that it is there, making it possible to construct a nontrivial quantum invariant.
I suspect there’s a lot more to this story. Well done Alagic, Jarret, and Jordan!
First-off, I’m fairly chuffed that Tangle Machines (arXiv version HERE) was published in Proc. R Soc. A, and they even chose our figure for the cover! Computing with Coloured Tangles has also been accepted for publication. This is good.
One of the constructions of Tangle Machines, which I previously discussed HERE and HERE, is a universal set of logic gates using coloured tangles (and in fact we cheated, because our colouring wasn’t by a quandle but by a more general algebraic structure). It turns out that this idea isn’t new, and actually it’s been done better a long time ago in a different setting, and in a very nice way (thanks anonymous referee!). Boolean logic can be realized using coloured braids! And it’s even potentially useful in quantum computing! So today I’ll discuss this paper and the papers it references:
Alagic, G., Jeffery, S., and Jordan, S. Circuit Obfuscation Using Braids. In 9th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2014) (eds. S.T. Flammia and A.W. Harrow), Vol. 27, pp. 141–160.
A few hours ago, Math2.0, the discussion forum for journal publishing reform, closed for good. This is an indicator that the Cost of Knowledge campaign is effectively over. That isn’t to say we shouldn’t still add our names to it if we haven’t yet done so, but the initiative in publishing reform seems to have passed back to the corporations, and it seems to have happened a long time ago.
On the converse side, there are a lot of new OA journals out there, some Green and some Gold. This is a very good thing! Submit there, and we can beat predatory publishers through market competition.
One thing I’m seeing right now is a proliferation of metrics enhancers, promoted by publishers. One which has recently caught my attention is Kudos. It seems a decent enough service and I see no reason not to sign on to it, but the picture it paints of today’s research scene is bleak. Research consists, in that picture, of the production of mountains of papers which nobody reads, with researchers having to promote papers on Twitter and Facebook and through short catchy pop-science paper summaries for anyone to actually read them. And budgets being evaluated on the basis of citation counts, h-indexes, and various altmetrics, which may depend primarily on being in many people’s peripheral vision rather that on actually advancing a research field. I like to think things are not quite that bad in mathematics.
There has been some recent interesting progress around the Slice Ribbon Conjecture. In particular, Yasui is giving talks on an infinite family counterexamples to the Akbulut-Kirby Conjecture (1978) that he has constructed:
Akbulut-Kirby Conjecture: If 0-surgeries on two knots give the same 3-manifold, then the knots with relevant orientations are concordant.
Note that some knots are not concordant to their reverses (Livingston), but the 0-surgery of a knot and its reverse are homeomorphic, so Akbulut-Kirby had to revise their original formalism to allow for arbitrary orientations. Abe and Tagami recently showed that if the Slice-Ribbon Conjecture is true then the Akbulut-Kirby Conjecture is false. Thus Yasui has eliminated an avenue to falsify the Slice-Ribbon Conjecture.
I’m now reading the following paper:
G. Borot and B. Eynard, All-order asymptotics of hyperbolic knot invariants from non-perturbative topological recursion of A-polynomials, Quantum Topol. 6 (2015), 39-138.
In it, the authors apply the Eynard-Orantin topological recursion to conjecture an all-order asymptotic expansion of the coloured Jones polynomial of the complement of a hyperbolic knot, extending the volume conjecture.
To get an overview of Eynard-Orantin Theory, I’m looking at:
- The original paper.
- Eynard’s own overview– an expanded version of an ICM talk.
- Some superb slides on the topic by Mulase.
One of the main ways in which I keep my finger on the pulse of what is hot now in low dimensional topology is to write lots and lots of reviews, both for Zentralblatt MATH and also for MathSciNet. In the last year or so, what has been increasingly coming through the pipe is papers about knot homology and mirror symmetry. There seems to be a lot happening in this field right now. (more…)
Marc Culler and I are pleased to announce version 2.3 of SnapPy. New features include:
- Major improvements to the link and planar diagram component, including link simplification, random links, and better documentation.
- Basic support for spun normal surfaces.
- New extra features when used inside of Sage:
- Better compatibility with OS X Yosemite and Windows 8.1.
- Development changes:
- Major source code reorganization/cleanup.
- Source code repository moved to Bitbucket.
- Python modules now hosted on PyPI, simplifying installation.
All available at the usual place.
This morning there was a paper which caught my eye:
Deraux, M. & Falbel, E. 2015 Complex hyperbolic geometry of the figure-eight knot.
Geometry & Topology 19, 237–293.
In it, the authors study a very different geometric structure for the figure-eight knot complement, as the manifold at infinity of a complex hyperbolic orbifold. (more…)
Check out this exciting new preprint by Vaughan Jones!
V.F.R. Jones, Some Unitary Representations of Thompson’s Groups and , arXiv:1412.7740.